Home » How do I remove the newline from the last line in a file in order to add text to that line?

How do I remove the newline from the last line in a file in order to add text to that line?

Solutons:


If all you want to do is add text to the last line, it’s very easy with sed. Replace $ (pattern matching at the end of the line) by the text you want to add, only on lines in the range $ (which means the last line).

sed '$ s/$/ and Linux/' <file >file.new &&
mv file.new file

which on Linux can be shortened to

sed -i '$ s/$/ and Linux/' file

If you want to remove the last byte in a file, Linux (more precisely GNU coreutils) offers the truncate command, which makes this very easy.

truncate -s -1 file

A POSIX way to do it is with dd. First determine the file length, then truncate it to one byte less.

length=$(wc -c <file)
dd if=/dev/null of=file obs="$((length-1))" seek=1

Note that both of these unconditionally truncate the last byte of the file. You may want to check that it’s a newline first:

length=$(wc -c <file)
if [ "$length" -ne 0 ] && [ -z "$(tail -c -1 <file)" ]; then
  # The file ends with a newline or null
  dd if=/dev/null of=file obs="$((length-1))" seek=1
fi

Though, you can remove newline character from line by tr -d 'n':

$ echo -e "Hello"
Hello
$ echo -e "Hello" | tr -d 'n'
Hello$

You can remove the newline character at the end of file using following easy way:

  1. head -c -1 file

    From man head:

    -c, --bytes=[-]K
              print the first K bytes of each file; with the leading '-',
              print all but the last K bytes of each file
    
  2. truncate -s -1 file

    from man truncate:

    -s, --size=SIZE
              set or adjust the file size by SIZE
    

    SIZE is an integer and optional unit (example: 10M is 10*1024*1024).
    Units are K, M, G, T, P, E, Z, Y (powers of 1024) or KB, MB, ... (powers of 1000).
    
    SIZE  may  also be prefixed by one of the following modifying characters: 
    '+' extend by, '-' reduce by, '<' at most, '>' at least, "https://unix.stackexchange.com/" round down to multiple of, '%' round up to multiple of.
    

You can achieve this with perl as:

perl -pi -e 'chomp if eof' myfile

Compared to truncate or dd this not gonna leave you with a broken file if myfile had actually no trailing newlines.

(the answer is constructed from the comment, and based on this answer)

Related Solutions

Joining bash arguments into single string with spaces

[*] I believe that this does what you want. It will put all the arguments in one string, separated by spaces, with single quotes around all: str="'$*'" $* produces all the scripts arguments separated by the first character of $IFS which, by default, is a space....

AddTransient, AddScoped and AddSingleton Services Differences

TL;DR Transient objects are always different; a new instance is provided to every controller and every service. Scoped objects are the same within a request, but different across different requests. Singleton objects are the same for every object and every...

How to download package not install it with apt-get command?

Use --download-only: sudo apt-get install --download-only pppoe This will download pppoe and any dependencies you need, and place them in /var/cache/apt/archives. That way a subsequent apt-get install pppoe will be able to complete without any extra downloads....

What defines the maximum size for a command single argument?

Answers Definitely not a bug. The parameter which defines the maximum size for one argument is MAX_ARG_STRLEN. There is no documentation for this parameter other than the comments in binfmts.h: /* * These are the maximum length and maximum number of strings...

Bulk rename, change prefix

I'd say the simplest it to just use the rename command which is common on many Linux distributions. There are two common versions of this command so check its man page to find which one you have: ## rename from Perl (common in Debian systems -- Ubuntu, Mint,...

Output from ls has newlines but displays on a single line. Why?

When you pipe the output, ls acts differently. This fact is hidden away in the info documentation: If standard output is a terminal, the output is in columns (sorted vertically) and control characters are output as question marks; otherwise, the output is...

mv: Move file only if destination does not exist

mv -vn file1 file2. This command will do what you want. You can skip -v if you want. -v makes it verbose - mv will tell you that it moved file if it moves it(useful, since there is possibility that file will not be moved) -n moves only if file2 does not exist....

Is it possible to store and query JSON in SQLite?

SQLite 3.9 introduced a new extension (JSON1) that allows you to easily work with JSON data . Also, it introduced support for indexes on expressions, which (in my understanding) should allow you to define indexes on your JSON data as well. PostgreSQL has some...

Combining tail && journalctl

You could use: journalctl -u service-name -f -f, --follow Show only the most recent journal entries, and continuously print new entries as they are appended to the journal. Here I've added "service-name" to distinguish this answer from others; you substitute...

how can shellshock be exploited over SSH?

One example where this can be exploited is on servers with an authorized_keys forced command. When adding an entry to ~/.ssh/authorized_keys, you can prefix the line with command="foo" to force foo to be run any time that ssh public key is used. With this...

Why doesn’t the tilde (~) expand inside double quotes?

The reason, because inside double quotes, tilde ~ has no special meaning, it's treated as literal. POSIX defines Double-Quotes as: Enclosing characters in double-quotes ( "" ) shall preserve the literal value of all characters within the double-quotes, with the...

What is GNU Info for?

GNU Info was designed to offer documentation that was comprehensive, hyperlinked, and possible to output to multiple formats. Man pages were available, and they were great at providing printed output. However, they were designed such that each man page had a...

Set systemd service to execute after fstab mount

a CIFS network location is mounted via /etc/fstab to /mnt/ on boot-up. No, it is not. Get this right, and the rest falls into place naturally. The mount is handled by a (generated) systemd mount unit that will be named something like mnt-wibble.mount. You can...

Merge two video clips into one, placing them next to each other

To be honest, using the accepted answer resulted in a lot of dropped frames for me. However, using the hstack filter_complex produced perfectly fluid output: ffmpeg -i left.mp4 -i right.mp4 -filter_complex hstack output.mp4 ffmpeg -i input1.mp4 -i input2.mp4...

How portable are /dev/stdin, /dev/stdout and /dev/stderr?

It's been available on Linux back into its prehistory. It is not POSIX, although many actual shells (including AT&T ksh and bash) will simulate it if it's not present in the OS; note that this simulation only works at the shell level (i.e. redirection or...

How can I increase the number of inodes in an ext4 filesystem?

It seems that you have a lot more files than normal expectation. I don't know whether there is a solution to change the inode table size dynamically. I'm afraid that you need to back-up your data, and create new filesystem, and restore your data. To create new...

Why doesn’t cp have a progress bar like wget?

The tradition in unix tools is to display messages only if something goes wrong. I think this is both for design and practical reasons. The design is intended to make it obvious when something goes wrong: you get an error message, and it's not drowned in...