Home » How to find out the dynamic libraries executables loads when run?

How to find out the dynamic libraries executables loads when run?

Solutons:


You can do this with ldd command:

NAME
       ldd - print shared library dependencies

SYNOPSIS
       ldd [OPTION]...  FILE...

DESCRIPTION
       ldd  prints  the  shared  libraries  required by each program or shared
       library specified on the command line.
....

Example:

$ ldd /bin/ls
    linux-vdso.so.1 =>  (0x00007fff87ffe000)
    libselinux.so.1 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libselinux.so.1 (0x00007ff0510c1000)
    librt.so.1 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/librt.so.1 (0x00007ff050eb9000)
    libacl.so.1 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libacl.so.1 (0x00007ff050cb0000)
    libc.so.6 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6 (0x00007ff0508f0000)
    libdl.so.2 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl.so.2 (0x00007ff0506ec000)
    /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00007ff0512f7000)
    libpthread.so.0 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread.so.0 (0x00007ff0504ce000)
    libattr.so.1 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libattr.so.1 (0x00007ff0502c9000)

readelf -d $executable | grep 'NEEDED'

Can be used if you can’t run the executable, e.g. if it was cross compiled, or if you don’t trust it:

In the usual case, ldd invokes the standard dynamic linker (see ld.so(8)) with the LD_TRACE_LOADED_OBJECTS environment variable set to 1, which causes the linker to display the library
dependencies. Be aware, however, that in some circumstances, some versions of ldd may attempt to obtain the dependency information by directly executing the program. Thus, you should
never employ ldd on an untrusted executable, since this may result in the execution of arbitrary code.

Example:

readelf -d /bin/ls | grep 'NEEDED'

Sample ouptut:

 0x0000000000000001 (NEEDED)             Shared library: [libselinux.so.1]
 0x0000000000000001 (NEEDED)             Shared library: [libacl.so.1]
 0x0000000000000001 (NEEDED)             Shared library: [libc.so.6]

Note that libraries can depend on other libraries, so now you need to find the dependencies.

A naive approach that often works is:

$ locate libselinux.so.1
/lib/i386-linux-gnu/libselinux.so.1
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libselinux.so.1
/mnt/debootstrap/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libselinux.so.1

but the more precise method is to understand the ldd search path / cache. I think ldconfig is the way to go.

Choose one, and repeat:

readelf -d /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libselinux.so.1 | grep 'NEEDED'

Sample output:

0x0000000000000001 (NEEDED)             Shared library: [libpcre.so.3]
0x0000000000000001 (NEEDED)             Shared library: [libdl.so.2]
0x0000000000000001 (NEEDED)             Shared library: [libc.so.6]
0x0000000000000001 (NEEDED)             Shared library: [ld-linux-x86-64.so.2]

And so on.

See also:

  • Determine direct shared object dependencies of a Linux binary? | Stack Overflow
  • How can I find the dynamic libraries required by an ELF Binary in C++? | Stack Overflow
  • How to know which dynamic libraries are needed by an ELF? | Stack Overflow

/proc/<pid>/maps for running processes

Mentioned by Basile, this is useful to find all the libraries currently being used by running executables. E.g.:

sudo awk '/.so/{print $6}' /proc/1/maps | sort -u

shows all currently loaded dynamic dependencies of init (PID 1):

/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ld-2.23.so
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libapparmor.so.1.4.0
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libaudit.so.1.0.0
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libblkid.so.1.1.0
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc-2.23.so
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libcap.so.2.24
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl-2.23.so
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libkmod.so.2.3.0
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libmount.so.1.1.0
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpam.so.0.83.1
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpcre.so.3.13.2
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread-2.23.so
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/librt-2.23.so
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libseccomp.so.2.2.3
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libselinux.so.1
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libuuid.so.1.3.0

This method also shows libraries opened with dlopen, tested with this minimal setup hacked up with a sleep(1000) on Ubuntu 18.04.

See also: How to see the currently loaded shared objects in Linux? | Super User

ldd and lsof show the libraries loaded either directly or at a given moment. They do not account for libraries loaded via dlopen (or discarded by dlclose). You can get a better picture of this using strace, e.g.,

strace -e trace=open myprogram

(since dlopen ultimately calls open – though you may of course have a system using different names for 64-bit opens…).

Example:

strace -e trace=open date

shows me this:

open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY)      = 3
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/librt.so.1", O_RDONLY) = 3
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY) = 3
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread.so.0", O_RDONLY) = 3
open("/usr/lib/locale/locale-archive", O_RDONLY) = 3
open("/etc/localtime", O_RDONLY)        = 3
Wed Apr 12 04:56:32 EDT 2017

from which one could grep the “.so” names to just see shared objects.

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