Home » How to modify existing, unpushed commit messages?

How to modify existing, unpushed commit messages?

Solutons:


Amending the most recent commit message

git commit --amend

will open your editor, allowing you to change the commit message of the most recent commit. Additionally, you can set the commit message directly in the command line with:

git commit --amend -m "New commit message"

…however, this can make multi-line commit messages or small corrections more cumbersome to enter.

Make sure you don’t have any working copy changes staged before doing this or they will get committed too. (Unstaged changes will not get committed.)

Changing the message of a commit that you’ve already pushed to your remote branch

If you’ve already pushed your commit up to your remote branch, then – after amending your commit locally (as described above) – you’ll also need to force push the commit with:

git push <remote> <branch> --force
# Or
git push <remote> <branch> -f

Warning: force-pushing will overwrite the remote branch with the state of your local one. If there are commits on the remote branch that you don’t have in your local branch, you will lose those commits.

Warning: be cautious about amending commits that you have already shared with other people. Amending commits essentially rewrites them to have different SHA IDs, which poses a problem if other people have copies of the old commit that you’ve rewritten. Anyone who has a copy of the old commit will need to synchronize their work with your newly re-written commit, which can sometimes be difficult, so make sure you coordinate with others when attempting to rewrite shared commit history, or just avoid rewriting shared commits altogether.


Perform an interactive rebase

Another option is to use interactive rebase.
This allows you to edit any message you want to update even if it’s not the latest message.

In order to do a Git squash, follow these steps:

// n is the number of commits up to the last commit you want to be able to edit
git rebase -i HEAD~n

Once you squash your commits – choose the e/r for editing the message:

Enter image description here

Important note about interactive rebase

When you use git rebase -i HEAD~n there can be more than n commits. Git will “collect” all the commits in the last n commits, and if there was a merge somewhere in between that range you will see all the commits as well, so the outcome will be n + .

Good tip:

If you have to do it for more than a single branch and you might face conflicts when amending the content, set up git rerere and let Git resolve those conflicts automatically for you.


Documentation

  • git-commit(1) Manual Page

  • git-rebase(1) Manual Page

  • git-push(1) Manual Page

git commit --amend -m "your new message"

If the commit you want to fix isn’t the most recent one:

  1. git rebase --interactive $parent_of_flawed_commit

    If you want to fix several flawed commits, pass the parent of the oldest one of them.

  2. An editor will come up, with a list of all commits since the one you gave.

    1. Change pick to reword (or on old versions of Git, to edit) in front of any commits you want to fix.
    2. Once you save, Git will replay the listed commits.
  3. For each commit you want to reword, Git will drop you back into your editor. For each commit you want to edit, Git drops you into the shell. If you’re in the shell:

    1. Change the commit in any way you like.
    2. git commit --amend
    3. git rebase --continue

Most of this sequence will be explained to you by the output of the various commands as you go. It’s very easy; you don’t need to memorise it – just remember that git rebase --interactive lets you correct commits no matter how long ago they were.


Note that you will not want to change commits that you have already pushed. Or maybe you do, but in that case you will have to take great care to communicate with everyone who may have pulled your commits and done work on top of them. How do I recover/resynchronise after someone pushes a rebase or a reset to a published branch?

Related Solutions

Extract file from docker image?

You can extract files from an image with the following commands: docker create $image # returns container ID docker cp $container_id:$source_path $destination_path docker rm $container_id According to the docker create documentation, this doesn't run the...

Transfer files using scp: permission denied

Your commands are trying to put the new Document to the root (/) of your machine. What you want to do is to transfer them to your home directory (since you have no permissions to write to /). If path to your home is something like /home/erez try the following:...

What’s the purpose of DH Parameters?

What exactly is the purpose of these DH Parameters? These parameters define how OpenSSL performs the Diffie-Hellman (DH) key-exchange. As you stated correctly they include a field prime p and a generator g. The purpose of the availability to customize these...

How to rsync multiple source folders

You can pass multiple source arguments. rsync -a /etc/fstab /home/user/download bkp This creates bkp/fstab and bkp/download, like the separate commands you gave. It may be desirable to preserve the source structure instead. To do this, use / as the source and...

Benefits of Structured Logging vs basic logging

There are two fundamental advances with the structured approach that can't be emulated using text logs without (sometimes extreme levels of) additional effort. Event Types When you write two events with log4net like: log.Debug("Disk quota {0} exceeded by user...

Interfaces vs Types in TypeScript

2019 Update The current answers and the official documentation are outdated. And for those new to TypeScript, the terminology used isn't clear without examples. Below is a list of up-to-date differences. 1. Objects / Functions Both can be used to describe the...

Get total as you type with added column (append) using jQuery

One issue if that the newly-added column id's are missing the id number. If you look at the id, it only shows "price-", when it should probably be "price-2-1", since the original ones are "price-1", and the original ones should probably be something like...

Determining if a file is a hard link or symbolic link?

Jim's answer explains how to test for a symlink: by using test's -L test. But testing for a "hard link" is, well, strictly speaking not what you want. Hard links work because of how Unix handles files: each file is represented by a single inode. Then a single...

How to restrict a Google search to results of a specific language?

You can do that using the advanced search options: http://www.googleguide.com/sharpening_queries.html I also found this, which might work for you: http://www.searchenginejournal.com/how-to-see-google-search-results-for-other-locations/25203/ Just wanted to add...

Random map generation

Among the many other related questions on the site, there's an often linked article for map generation: Polygonal Map Generation for Games you can glean some good strategies from that article, but it can't really be used as is. While not a tutorial, there's an...

How to prettyprint a JSON file?

The json module already implements some basic pretty printing in the dump and dumps functions, with the indent parameter that specifies how many spaces to indent by: >>> import json >>> >>> your_json = '["foo", {"bar":["baz", null,...

How can I avoid the battery charging when connected via USB?

I have an Android 4.0.3 phone without root access so can't test any of this but let me point you to /sys/class/power_supply/battery/ which gives some info/control over charging issues. In particular there is charging_enabled which gives the current state (0 not...

How to transform given dataset in python? [closed]

From your expected result, it appears that each "group" is based on contiguous id values. For this, you can use the compare-cumsum-groupby pattern, and then use agg to get the min and max values. # Sample data. df = pd.DataFrame( {'id': [1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1,...

Output of the following C++ Program [closed]

It works exactly like this non-recursive translation: int func_0() { return 2; } int func_1() { return 3; } int func_2() { return func_1() + func_0(); } // Returns 3 + 2 = 5 int func_3() { return func_2() + func_1(); } // Returns 5 + 3 = 8 int func_4() { return...

Making a circle out of . (periods) [closed]

Here's the maths and even an example program in C: http://pixwiki.bafsoft.com/mags/5/articles/circle/sincos.htm (link no longer exists). And position: absolute, left and top will let you draw: http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/visuren.html#choose-position Any further...

Should I use a code converter (Python to C++)?

Generally it's an awful way to write code, and does not guarantee that it will be any faster. Things which are simple and fast in one language can be complex and slow in another. You're better off either learning how to write fast Python code or learning C++...

tkinter: cannot concatenate ‘str’ and ‘float’ objects

This one line is more than enough to cause the problem: text="რეგულარი >> "+2.23+ 'GEL' 2.23 is a floating-point value; 'GEL' is a string. What does it mean to add an arithmetic value and a string of letters? If you want the string label 'რეგულარი...