Home » Run ./script.sh vs bash script.sh – permission denied

Run ./script.sh vs bash script.sh – permission denied


Incorrect POSIX permissions

It means you don’t have the execute permission bit set for script.sh. When running bash script.sh, you only need read permission for script.sh. See What is the difference between running “bash script.sh” and “./script.sh”? for more info.

You can verify this by running ls -l script.sh.

You may not even need to start a new Bash process. In many cases, you can simply run source script.sh or . script.sh to run the script commands in your current interactive shell. You would probably want to start a new Bash process if the script changes current directory or otherwise modifies the environment of the current process.

Access Control Lists

If the POSIX permission bits are set correctly, the Access Control List (ACL) may have been configured to prevent you or your group from executing the file. E.g. the POSIX permissions would indicate that the test shell script is

$ ls -l t.sh
-rwxrwxrwx+ 1 root root 22 May 14 15:30 t.sh

However, attempting to execute the file results in:

$ ./t.sh
bash: ./t.sh: Permission denied

The getfacl command shows the reason why:

$ getfacl t.sh
# file: t.sh
# owner: root
# group: root

In this case, my primary group is domain users which has had execute permissions revoked by restricting the ACL with sudo setfacl -m 'g:domain40users:rw-' t.sh. This restriction can be lifted by either of the following commands:

sudo setfacl -m 'g:domain40users:rwx' t.sh
sudo setfacl -b t.sh


  • Access Control Lists, Arch Linux Wiki
  • Using ACLs with Fedora Core 2

Filesystem mounted with noexec option

Finally, the reason in this specific case for not being able to run the script is that the filesystem the script resides on was mounted with the noexec option. This option overrides POSIX permissions to prevent any file on that filesystem from being executed.

This can be checked by running mount to list all mounted filesystems; the mount options are listed in parentheses in the entry corresponding to the filesystem, e.g.

/dev/sda3 on /tmp type ext3 (rw,noexec)

You can either move the script to another mounted filesystem or remount the filesystem allowing execution:

sudo mount -o remount,exec /dev/sda3 /tmp

Note: I’ve used /tmp as an example here since there are good security reasons for keeping /tmp mounted with the noexec,nodev,nosuid set of options.

Try chmod +rx script.sh, this will give read and execute permissions to user, group and others.

Then try, ./script.sh.

On my win7 with admin running cmd; I have .sh files associated with cygwin64/bin/bash, but it was blocked by cmd. None of the above suggestions helped (chmod, setfacl, mount).

The solution below worked, it is an admin sledge-hammer acl-fixer whenever folders/file become inaccessible to admin on win7, which is often):

  Start > run cmd as Admin
  c:> script.sh
    Access is denied.

  cmd> chmod 0777 script.sh c:cygwin64binbash.exe
  cmd> script.sh
    Access is denied.

  > assoc .sh

  > ftype bash
  bash=C:cygwin64binbash.exe -- "%1" %*

  > bash
  $ FILE=c:/cygwin64/bin/bash.exe
  $ FILE=${FILE////\} # s,/,,g

  # Compare these permissions using accesschk by Mark Russinovich 2015
  $ accesschk.exe -lq  $FILE 
  $ accesschk.exe -lq c:/windows/system32/cmd.exe
  # [large output not shown]

  # === Solution: Change windows acl for bash ===
  $ takeown /F $FILE /A > /dev/null
  $ icacls $FILE /t /q /c /reset
  $ icacls $FILE /t /q /c /grant    :r Everyone:F
  $ icacls $FILE /t /q /c /setowner Administrators  
  # ====

  cmd> script.sh
    OK .. invokes bash

Related Solutions

Joining bash arguments into single string with spaces

[*] I believe that this does what you want. It will put all the arguments in one string, separated by spaces, with single quotes around all: str="'$*'" $* produces all the scripts arguments separated by the first character of $IFS which, by default, is a space....

AddTransient, AddScoped and AddSingleton Services Differences

TL;DR Transient objects are always different; a new instance is provided to every controller and every service. Scoped objects are the same within a request, but different across different requests. Singleton objects are the same for every object and every...

How to download package not install it with apt-get command?

Use --download-only: sudo apt-get install --download-only pppoe This will download pppoe and any dependencies you need, and place them in /var/cache/apt/archives. That way a subsequent apt-get install pppoe will be able to complete without any extra downloads....

What defines the maximum size for a command single argument?

Answers Definitely not a bug. The parameter which defines the maximum size for one argument is MAX_ARG_STRLEN. There is no documentation for this parameter other than the comments in binfmts.h: /* * These are the maximum length and maximum number of strings...

Bulk rename, change prefix

I'd say the simplest it to just use the rename command which is common on many Linux distributions. There are two common versions of this command so check its man page to find which one you have: ## rename from Perl (common in Debian systems -- Ubuntu, Mint,...

Output from ls has newlines but displays on a single line. Why?

When you pipe the output, ls acts differently. This fact is hidden away in the info documentation: If standard output is a terminal, the output is in columns (sorted vertically) and control characters are output as question marks; otherwise, the output is...

mv: Move file only if destination does not exist

mv -vn file1 file2. This command will do what you want. You can skip -v if you want. -v makes it verbose - mv will tell you that it moved file if it moves it(useful, since there is possibility that file will not be moved) -n moves only if file2 does not exist....

Is it possible to store and query JSON in SQLite?

SQLite 3.9 introduced a new extension (JSON1) that allows you to easily work with JSON data . Also, it introduced support for indexes on expressions, which (in my understanding) should allow you to define indexes on your JSON data as well. PostgreSQL has some...

Combining tail && journalctl

You could use: journalctl -u service-name -f -f, --follow Show only the most recent journal entries, and continuously print new entries as they are appended to the journal. Here I've added "service-name" to distinguish this answer from others; you substitute...

how can shellshock be exploited over SSH?

One example where this can be exploited is on servers with an authorized_keys forced command. When adding an entry to ~/.ssh/authorized_keys, you can prefix the line with command="foo" to force foo to be run any time that ssh public key is used. With this...

Why doesn’t the tilde (~) expand inside double quotes?

The reason, because inside double quotes, tilde ~ has no special meaning, it's treated as literal. POSIX defines Double-Quotes as: Enclosing characters in double-quotes ( "" ) shall preserve the literal value of all characters within the double-quotes, with the...

What is GNU Info for?

GNU Info was designed to offer documentation that was comprehensive, hyperlinked, and possible to output to multiple formats. Man pages were available, and they were great at providing printed output. However, they were designed such that each man page had a...

Set systemd service to execute after fstab mount

a CIFS network location is mounted via /etc/fstab to /mnt/ on boot-up. No, it is not. Get this right, and the rest falls into place naturally. The mount is handled by a (generated) systemd mount unit that will be named something like mnt-wibble.mount. You can...

Merge two video clips into one, placing them next to each other

To be honest, using the accepted answer resulted in a lot of dropped frames for me. However, using the hstack filter_complex produced perfectly fluid output: ffmpeg -i left.mp4 -i right.mp4 -filter_complex hstack output.mp4 ffmpeg -i input1.mp4 -i input2.mp4...

How portable are /dev/stdin, /dev/stdout and /dev/stderr?

It's been available on Linux back into its prehistory. It is not POSIX, although many actual shells (including AT&T ksh and bash) will simulate it if it's not present in the OS; note that this simulation only works at the shell level (i.e. redirection or...

How can I increase the number of inodes in an ext4 filesystem?

It seems that you have a lot more files than normal expectation. I don't know whether there is a solution to change the inode table size dynamically. I'm afraid that you need to back-up your data, and create new filesystem, and restore your data. To create new...

Why doesn’t cp have a progress bar like wget?

The tradition in unix tools is to display messages only if something goes wrong. I think this is both for design and practical reasons. The design is intended to make it obvious when something goes wrong: you get an error message, and it's not drowned in...